SMART GRIDS (in English language

 Course ID
1052081     Master's Degree in Electrical Engineering
Master's Degree in Energy Engineering
Prof. Alberto Geri 
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Astronautica, Elettrica ed Energetica Sezione di Ingegneria Elettrotecnica
Via delle Sette Sale n°12/B, 1st floor room 48
Phone (+39) 06 4458.5.540     FAX
(+39) 06 4883235     email:
Office hours
 Wednesday  from   15:00   to   17:00
 Thursday  from   15:00   to   17:00

Please email me if you want an appointment outside of office hours, with the reason well explained.
I can be reached for questions by electronic mail too.

Given the problems linked to the critical health situation, which impose restrictions on access to offices as well as to possible interactions between professors and students, I will give explanations to students by e-mail or booking a video meeting.

Credits 9 ECTS (equivalent to 90 hours of face-to-face instruction and 135 hours of individual study).
Course meeting times
 22 feb 2021 - 28 may 2021
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Course description
The course introduces students to the new multi-disciplinary field of smart grids, approaching the theme from the distribution system operator (DSO) point of view.
This course starts with an introduction to the broad subject of power distribution networks. It will initially focus on the analysis of existing distribution systems and their operation and protection.
The second part of the course will concentrate on the introducing the fundamental concepts and components of smart grids, as well as on their contribution on including renewables integration, plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) penetrations, demand side management, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions.
In the third part of the course, few case studies are presented: these cases are related to the most advanced pilot projects developed by some Italian utilities, in order to implement advanced smart grid technologies in their distribution networks.
Lectures will present much of the foundation of the course. Textbooks provide the basic concepts, vocabulary, and important details on which lecture material will be based. A few topics covered in the lectures may not be covered in the textbooks and vice versa. Most of the lectures time will be spent examining the specific topics and or examples that provide a meaningful context with the concepts presented in the textbooks. Assignments will be given at the end of some classes.
Prerequisites Students must have attended the courses on the "Electrical Power Systems" and on the "Dynamics of Electrical Machines"; possibly, they even should have passed the corresponding exams.
Basic concepts on power systems and electrical machines are essential to understand the topics proposed in this course.
Course goals
This course has three main objectives:
  • to analyse the structure of typical power systems and, in particular, of existing electrical distribution grids as well as their basic operation conditions;
  • to present the student a vision of how smart grids will transform the current electricity grids to reliable and sustainable modern energy systems;
  • to show the progression state of studies and achievements on smart grid technologies in Italy by analyzing pilot projects implemented on existing distribution networks.
Course outcome
Upon completion of this course students will be able to:
  • understand the architecture of existing electrical power systems and their basic operation conditions;
  • develop appropriate models for electrical distribution systems;
  • perform distribution grid studies (power flow, short circuit etc.) by writing/using simple computer programs;
  • understand protection and automation of existing distribution networks;
  • understand the concepts of smart grid and microgrid, in comparison with conventional distribution grid, and identify their opportunities and barriers;
  • understand renewable energy systems and storage systems as well as their grid integration;
  • understand the integration of electrical vehicles with rechargeable batteries into distribution networks.
 20% homework problems

 grading G1 (from 0 up to 30 points)
 80% in-class exams
 30% midterm exam
 grading G2 (from 0 up to 30 points)

 50% final exam
 grading G3 (from 0 up to 30 points)

Final Grade = round(0.2 * G1 + 0.3 * G2 + 0.5 * G3)
Grading scale

In Italy, for ordinary exams, universities use a 30-point scale that can be devidet into failing (0 to 17) and passed (18 to 30 cum laude) grades.

 30-30 cum laude
 Excellent A+  Excellent
A  Excellent
 Excellent A-  Excellent
 Very good
 Very good
 Very good
 20 C  Good C  Satisfactory
 19 C  Good C-  Satisfactory
 18 D  Satisfactory D  Barely passing
 14-17 Fx
 Fail E  Fail
 0-16 F
 Fail F  Fail

Homeworks, which will be assigned approximately on bi- or three-weekly basis (except during the week of the midterm exam), are expected to be sent to instructor in PDF format by email attachments. When students submitt files electronically, not later than one week from the assignment, they must use the following naming convention:
where: double question mark, ??, must be replaced by the progression number of homework assignment; for example, suppose that the student last name is Simpson, for homework assignment number 2, he should name his file as "SMGD_HW02_Simpson.pdf".
Late homeworks, in general, will be graded to zero, unless there are legitimate reasons: should a student anticipate that he or she cannot turn in the assignment on time, then he or she must inform the instructor BEFORE the assignment's due date.
one ore more homeworks will be graded to zero, due to the non-compliance with deadlines, all assignments must be mandatory submitted before all-in-one exams (as scheduled in Exams scheduling), otherwise, student will not be admitted to the test.
There will be a midterm exam and a final one in this class, they will be given in a lecture period. If a student, for any reason, does not give the midterm/final exam, or want to improve the grade obtained, he or she can give the all-in-one exam during the time scheduled by the university (see Exams scheduling). 
The exam is passed if the final grade (taking in to account all assignments as in Grading) exceeds 18 (see Grading scale); otherwise, the student will have to give the all-in-one exam again.
The in-class exams are closed-book and closed-notes. In addition, during the exams, all electronic devices
must turned off, as well as everything, except a calculator and the stationery material (pens, pencils, erasers etc.), must be removed from desk.

How the exam will be organised in the time of Covid-19
There are no variations with respect to that specified in this web page for the face-to-face (i.e., in presence) exam: it will be in written form and closed book, except for the on line execution according to the way published by the University. With respect to these ones, I will adopt a simplified procedure for the exam in order to reduce any problems related to the instability of the connection for 3 or 4 hours. In order to facilitate all identification operations, during the access to the
GOOGLE MEET video meeting (LINK:, I will ask you to show me your ID on the webcam of your notebook. In this way I will be able to quickly proceed to the visual confirmation of your identity. In relation to the number of participants, the access to the video meeting may require a few minutes of waiting: you will simply have to wait for your turn. The exam will begin once I have processed all pending access requests. Through the chat of GOOGLE MEET I will communicate you the EXAM KEY to enter in the EXAM.NET environment, and you will be able to start the exam. During the identification and during the written exam your microphone must remain off, while the webcam must be obviously on. In this way, in addition to speeding up the operations, we will avoid private video meetings that can reduce the efficiency of data transmission, risking to compromise the proper processing of the exam.
I remind you that once you are inside EXAM.NET you will not be able to leave the environment, otherwise you risk the possible cancellation of the exam. You can only communicate with me through the EXAM.NET chat. In order to carry out the written exam you can use all the tools and apps that I have activated in the EXAM.NET environment (text and formulas editors, graphs, calculator etc.) and possibly your calculator. I ask you to use as far as possible these tools and apps, in order to facilitate the subsequent correction of your work. Only in case of extreme necessity, you can integrate the written text on screen with photos of complicated formulas or complex drawings, which would be too expensive to enter with the available EXAM.NET tools. Possible drawings, formulas or handwritten calculations on your papers will have to be captured by your smartphone, and will have to be uploaded using the methods provided by EXAM.NET, in order to send (at the end of the exam, which will last three hours) your complete work.
The result of the exam will be communicated to you as soon as the correction has been completed. If you wish, you can view the error(s) in your written exam on request.
Exams scheduling
 I outstanding
 07.11.2020  24.10.2020  Time: 08:00 - 12:00        REMOTELY
 I and II
 07.01.2021  20.02.2021
 Time: ??:?? - ??:??        REMOTELY

 12.02.2021  Time: ??:?? - ??:??        REMOTELY
 II outstanding  08.03.2021
 Time: ??:?? - ??:??        REMOTELY
 III and IV
 17.06.2021  Time: ??:?? - ??:??        REMOTELY

 15.07.2021  Time: ??:?? - ??:??        REMOTELY
 01.09.2021  25.09.2021  16.09.2021  Time: ??:?? - ??:??        REMOTELY
Attendance and expectations
It is expected that students will spend twelve to fifteen hours on average per week, outside of class, on this course to review the class material, and work on homeworks, which will be assigned approximately on bi- or three-weekly basis, except during the week of the midterm exam.
It is also expect students have read over lecture materials ahead of class so that class time is used efficiently to explain concepts. It is preferred that students submit their questions by email, but if they come to office hours then they must have prepared questions.
Attendance is expected but not required. However, if a student chose to come to class, he must be prompt and he has to be seated in class before the beginning of the lecture.
Cell phones and other electronic devices are to be silenced. No text messaging during class or exams.
Academic honesty
Each student must exclusively turn in own work. In particular, students are not allowed to ask anyone but instructor for help with their homeworks or programming assignments. However, they are free to discuss the topics and concepts of the course with their classmates, as long as they do not discuss the specifics of any assignment. Students are expected to make an honest, independent attempt to solve and turn in their answers to each homework question. Any violation of this policy could result in failure of the course.
Assessment feedback
Students will receive feedback on all graded assessments (i.e., homeworks and in-class exams) by corresponding grade tables posted on the web page: Exams.
In particular, feedback on all graded assessments related to homeworks, midterm and final exams will be published before the first scheduled all-in-one exam.
Verbalization calendars of passed exams will be also posted on the same web page: Exams.
Students will be punctually informed on all available updates (grade tables and
verbalization calendars) by posted notices on the web page: Notice board.
Last minute information
Urgent communications, such as variations of time or classroom of lectures or exams, or any other information about course or students, will be immediately posted on the web page: Notice board.
01: 30.09.19@10-13
 Course introduction
02: 03.10.19@10-13
 Electric system structure  SMGR_LC02
03: 04.10.19@14-16
 Numerical applications: voltage reg. and p.f. correction
 In Lear. Mat.
04: 07.10.19@10-13  Electric system operation  SMGR_LC03
05: 11.10.19@14-16  Why will we need a smarter grid?  SMGR_LC04
06: 14.10.19@10-13  HV and MV OHL and PCL: line models and their behavior.
 Design of MV distribution lines: theory.
07: 15.10.19@14-17  Examples: feeder fed at one end; feeder fed at one end with  several lateral branches  Notes
08: 17.10.19@11-14  Examples: feeder fed at both ends (ring)  Notes
09: 18.10.19@14-16
 Numerical application
10: 21.10.19@10-13
 Per-unit method: theory and examples  In Lear. Mat.
11: 22.10.19@14-17
 Lecture not given (due to classroom unusability)
12: 24.10.19@11-14  Lecture not given (due to classroom unusability)  
13: 25.10.19@14-16  Numerical applications: per-unit method  In Lear. Mat.
14: 28.10.19@10-13
 Power-flow studies: theory and examples  In Lear. Mat.
15: 29.10:19@14-17
 Numerical applications: power-flow studies by matpower  SMGR-NA03
16: 31.10.19@11-14
 Numerical applications: power-flow studies by matpower  caseXXdist
17: 04.11.19@10-13
 Short-circuit studies: theory and examples  [1] Ch. 04
18: 07.11.19@10-13  Short-circuit studies: theory and examples
 [1] Ch. 04
19: 08.11.19@14-16
 Short-circuit studies: theory and examples  [1] Ch. 04
20: 11.11.19@10-13
 Numerical application: symmetrical three-phase short circuit  Notes
21: 12.11.19@14-17
 Numerical application: unsymmetrical faults (1FG)
22: 14.11.19@11-14
 Numerical application: unsymmetrical faults (2F)
23: 15.11.19@14-16
 Numerical application: unsymmetrical faults (2FG)
24: 18.11.19@10-13
 Solution of first homework: discussion and comments  Notes
25: 21.11.19@11-14
 Solution of second homework: discussion and comments  Notes
26: 22.11.19@14-16  Numerical application: short-circuit studies  Notes
27: 25.11.19@10-13
 In-class midterm exam
28: 26.11.19@14-17  Numerical application: short-circuit studies
Solution of midterm exam: discussion and comment
29: 28.11.19@11-14  Protection of distribution systems: theory and examples   [1] Ch. 05
30: 29.11.19@14-16  Protection of distribution systems: theory and examples  [1] Ch. 05
31: 02.12.19@10-13  Case study: TERNA - primary substations  SMGR_NC01
32: 03.12.19@14-17  Case study: TDE Terni - real time data for smart grids
33: 05.12.19@11-14  Protection of distribution systems: numerical applications  Notes
34: 06.12.19@14-16  Protection of distribution systems: numerical applications  Notes
35: 09.12.19@10-13  Case study: e-distribuzione - operation of distribution grids  SMGR_NC05
36: 12.12.19@11-14  Lecture not given (hours planned for the course reached)  
37: 13.12.19@14-16  Lecture not given (hours planned for the course reached)  
38: 16.12.19@10-13  Case study: TDE Terni - cyber security  SMGR_NC08
39: 17.12.19@09-17  Case study: TDE Terni - demand response
 Visit to pilots and installations of ASM S.p.A. Terni
40: 19.12.19@11-14  Solution of 3th & 4th homework: discussion and comments SMGR-HW03  

41: 20.12.19@14-16  In-class final exam
Tutoring activity
There are no official tutoring activities.
A small tutoring activity is carried out by Prof. Maccioni on a voluntary basis only.
Download course materials
Powerpoint slides, handouts, lesson notes and any other type of teaching material (such as typical examples of homework and exams with their solutions) can be downloaded directly from this web page, by clicking on corresponding links, or from the links on the web page: Learning materials.
Master degree thesis
Several themes for master degree theses are available concerning, power systems, MV/LV distribution grids, smart- and micro-grids; some of them are:
  • UNDERWAY: Analysis of the static and dynamic stability of the Italian network in the presence of renewable energy sources only.
  • UNDERWAY: Optimal operation of a micro-grid integrated within a MV public distribution network under normal or abnormal operation conditions.
  • Smart Monitoring System (SMS) for smart grids: a general purpose, modular, scalable and low-cost system for monitoring electrical and environmental parameters (e.g., voltages, currents, temperature, umidity and much more), based on hardware and software open solutions.
    There are several master degree theses on this subject with reference to the design, implementation and installation of hardware components (based on single board computers such as respberry, barebone, banana and so on) and software applications (developed in python language and implementing artificial intelligence, AI, technique), integrated into a pilot system for monitoring the primary and secondary substations in the MV/LV distribution grid of TDE Terni.
  • Analysis of a MV distribution grid resilience and solutions for its improvement.
  • Exploration of a Scalable Holomorphic Embedding Method Formulation for Distribution System Analysis Applications.